Handlmaier AP Euro


Chapter 17


Age of Reason: People looked for change. Logical reason for everything.

Artistic trends: rational, natural, Gothic Art.


Deism- God created the universe, but has no part in anything and lets humans rule as they want to

Physiocrats-wanted change in the economy, and wanted limited government

Enlightened Absolutism- Form of an absolute monarchy

Capitalism- economic system which let private owners control trade to make profits

Utilitarianism- A theory in ethics

Philosophes- Writers who were enlightened thinking of new ways of the world

German pietists- Movement in Germany


Locke- An English philosopher, enlightened, thoughts on government

Newton- An English physicist and mathematician, discovered calculus and helped optics

Voltaire- A French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher


Montesquieu- French man who helped Enlightment

Beccaria- An Italian jurist, philosopher and politician,  On Crimes and Punishments,

Smith- A Scottish philosopher

Rousseau- A Genevan philosopher, writer, influenced the French Revolution

Diderot- A French philosopher

Hume- A Scottish philosopher

Kant- A German philosopher

Paris salons- Women would own these to invite famous people to speak

French Academy-  1635 by Cardinal Richelieu

Wollstonecraft- English writer, who fought for woman's rights

Maria Theresa- only female Hapsburg ruler

Joseph II-  ruler of the Habsburg lands for 10 years

Catherine the Great- enlightened leader of Russia czar

Chapter 18:


Parlements- French political institution of the old regime.

Estates General- French assembly representing the estates of France consisting of the First, Second, and third estates

National Assembly- Transitional body between the Estates General and the National Constituent assembly

Doubling the Third Estate- The third estates declaration of being the National assembly which sparked the Revolution

Cahiers de doleances- List of greivances proposed by the the three estates at the start of the Revolution

Tennis Court Oath- Pledge signed by the third estate after being rejected from the estates General promising to meet until the new constitution was written

Fall of the Bastille- Flashpoint of the Revolution by taking the Prison of Bastille which represented the royal authority

Great Fear- Rumors of forces moving about the countryside attacking villages so the people took arms in defense

Night of August- The national assembly decided to abolish feudalism

Declaration of the Rights of Man- Bill of Rights written by the national assembly that was meant to protect the natural rights of man against oppression

March of Women- Ended the Independent authority of the King

National Constituent Assembly- Becoame the effective governement of France

Departments; arrondissements- The different areas of France that became their own districts

Assignats- Paper money issued by the national assembly that was used during the French Revolution

Civil Constitution of the Clergy- Law that subordinated the French Roman Catholic Church to the French Government

Émigrés- People who migrate out of France

Girondists- Political faction in the Legislative Assembly who supported the abbolishment of the monarchy but opposed the direction of the Revolution

Jacobins- People who supported a centralized Republic

Sans-culottes- The left wing partisans of the lower classes that dominated the population

September Massacres- Acts of mob viloences where half of the prison populations were killed

Levee en masse- Dantons call to arms of the people to defend France against invading Austria

Reign of Terror- Age when many executions took place of Robespierres orders

Thermidoran reaction- After Robespierres list of names that he did not reveal, the rest of the committee executed him

Constitution of 1795- Created a breif Republic for France

Committee of Public Safety- The new government of France after the monarchy was killed to organize safety for the people against themselves

Cult of Reason- Robespierres religion with himself as the leader

Temples of Reason- Cathedrals dedicated to the cult of reason that were created from former christian Churches i.e. Notre Dame

Republic of Virtue- Based on the virtue of bettering society through ones actions

De-Christianization- French people taking out Roman Catholocism of Paris and France


Louis XVI: “Citizen Louis Capet”- Incompotent king whose indecisiveness and poor kingship lead the Revolution

Necker- Minister to Louis who advised the betterment of society of the Third Estate

Marie-Antoinette- Queen of France who represented the falsehoods of the monarchy and nobility

Marat- Writer who sparked the anger in the mob and demanded bloodshed in his writings

Danton- Speaker who demanded to go to war to defend the country

Robespierre- Leader of the Revolution who used his influence to kill many


Rise and fall of dictatorship –when one power rises up and takes control of all, the people will eventually see through his divine authority and rebel, just like they had many times in history

Romanticism –artistic, literate and intellectual era of European history during the second half of the eighteenth century


Battle of Trafalgar –on October 21, 1805 when the British destroyed combination of French and Spanish fleets and ended French hope of invading Britain while securing the seas with Britain 

Concordat of 1801 –declared “Catholicism is religion of the great majority of French citizens”

Civil Code of 1804 (Napoleonic Code) –safe guarded all forms of property and tried to secure French society against internal challenges. The privileges people had based on birth were gone.

Confederation of the Rhine –many political changes made by Napoleon including most of western German princes

Treaty of Tilset –confirmed France’s gains after Tsar Alexander I would make peace. Russia secretly and Prussia openly supported Napoleon afterwards.

Austerlitz –place in which Austria was defeated

Continental system –foreign policy Napoleon in struggle against United Kingdom

Berlin decrees –act of cutting off British trade with European continent to cripple British commercial and economic power

Peninsular wars –conflict between France and other dominant powers over control of Iberian Peninsula

Grand Army –big army of Napoleon used during invasion of Russia made up of 600,000 me

Invasion of Russia –Napoleon wanted to end Russian military threat but Russia used “scorch-Earth method” but both armies continued. Napoleon fled to Paris and left Grand Army for themselves.

Hundred Days –period of Napoleon’s return that frightened great powers and made peace settlement harsher for France

Holy Alliance –proposed by Alexander where monarchs promised to act together in accordance with Christian principles. It was signed by Austria and Prussia.

Quadruple alliance –between Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia for twenty years to preserve the settlement they agreed on to maintain peace and victory over France

Congress of Vienna –made in September 1814, agreed that one power (France) should not dominate Europe and they would prevent France from doing so

Concert of Europe –the balance of power that existed in Europe

Battle of Waterloo –when Napoleon was killed and his reign ended

Romanticism –reaction against much of the thoughts of Enlightenment. The writers saw imagination supplementing reason as means to perceive and understand the worl


Napoleon –obtained position as French artillery officer due to schooling and favored revolution as Jacobin. He recovered port of Toulon from British and was rewarded with brigadier general and eventually command of Italy

Nelson –an admirable lord that destroyed French fleets in Battle of Trafalgar

Talleyrand –French diplomat that worked closely with Louis XVI

Duke of Wellington –controlled British army

Alexander I –made peace with Napoleon in Treaty of Tilset

Metternich –Austrian minister that wanted to make peace with Napoleon instead of having Russia dominate Europe

Schubert –famous Austrian composer of this time period

Hugo –leaded the Romantic Movement in France

Stendhal –French writer focusing on psychology

Coleridge –master of gothic poems that thought that artist’s imagination was God at work in the mind

Wordsworth –poet that published Lyrical Ballads with Coleridge

Shelley –major English Romantic poet mainly famous for her lyric poems

Goethe –greatest German writer that defied easy classification masterpiece was Faust, a long dramatic poem

Schlegel –wrote Lucinde attacking prejudices against women

Hegel –most important philosopher, believed ideas develop in evolutionary fashion that involves conflict

Herder –early leader in effort to search for own past in reaction to copying French manners and French revolution

Beethoven –famous composer starting with works of Romanticism

Mendelssohn –composer also during Romanticism era

Chopin –piano composer known as “the poet of the piano”

Constable –famous English Romantic painter

Delacroix –French romantic artist

Chapter 20

Age of Metternich: conservatives “rule” –he had control over some countries, no constitutionalism

Bourbon Restoration in France –Louis XVIII took over after Napoleon and Revolution resulting in constitutional monarchyf


Nationalism –people who are joined together by a bond of common language, customs, and culture which should be administered by the same government

Political liberalism –ideaology that challenged own political values and wanted more change in goverment

Political conservatism –against ideas of rights, equality or written constitution 

Junkers –group of nobles in Prussia

Burchenschaften –student associations like different clubs with numerous social functions

Carlsbad decrees –a list of restrictions in German Confederation

1815 Corn Law –passed by Parliament 

Peterloo Massacres - the massacre of people who wanted reform of Parliament in St. Peter’s Field

Cato Street conspiracy - Arthur Thistlewood wanted to blow up entire British cabinet

Bourbon resistance – White Terror against former revolutionaries

Charter –provided for hereditary monarch and bicameral legislature

Congress system –Russia, Austria, Prussia, and Great Britain removed troops from Franc

Spanish Revolution of 1820 –Ferdinand VII of Spain became King ofFrance and lied to people

Greek Revolution of 1821 – when other countries demanded Greek independence and it was achieved

Serbian independence –got away from Ottoman Empire 

Wars of Independence in Latin America –France driven from Haiti, Portugal lost control of Brazi

Decembrist Revolt of 1825 –Moscow regiment refused to swear alliance to Nicholas I

Belgium 1830 –Beligium was defeated 

Reform Bill of 1832 –increased number of voters

Eastern question –political issues after fall of Ottoman Empire


George IV –king of Hanover and United Kingdom

Lord Liverpool – minister protected interest of wealthy class

Daniel O’Connor –led Irish to Catholic Association

Toussaint L’Ouverture –succesful movement for slaves to gain independence

Ferdinand VII –ruler of Spain who accepted a liberal consitution

San Martin –leading general 

Father Hidalgo –Creole priest 

Louis XVIII –ruler of France, agreeing to constitutional monarchy 

Charles X –set up four Ordinances in Frane

Metternich - German diplomat 

Frederick William III –ruler of Prussia

Nicholas I –new tsar of Russia


Stages: 1) textiles, coal & iron; 2) steel, electricity, chemicals –growing industries at this time mainly in Britain until the second industrial revolution 

Revolutions: protest against economic conditions & in favor of political liberties –some ended well while others didn't 

Urbanization: mass movement towards urban areas; cities

Population Growth: growth of population during the time peiod

Potato famine –in Ireland, a famine that mainly affected peasants with no land and only patatos after the disease had struck the potato plant 

Proletarianization –artisans participated in wage labor force in which their labor became a commodity of labor, they lost ownership of all means of production

Chartism –program of political reform in which six reforms were present

Child labor –children worked in horrible conditions because their fingers were small to fit in machines

English Factory Act of 1833 –forbade children under nine to work, shortened day of children ages nine to thirteen, and made the owner pay for two hours of education for children

Prison reform –paid professionally trained group of law where enforcement officers keeps order, protects property and lives, investigate crime and apprehends offenders
Malthus –classical economist with Essay on the Principle of Population with ideas on working class 
Ricardo –wrote Principles of Polticial Economy that transformed concepts of Malthus into iron law of wages 
Iron Law of Wages –if wages were increased, parents would have more children, making more workers, thus decreasing wages which means fewer children then another increase in wages (continuous cycle) 
Zollverein –free trading union with major German states except Austria 
Utilitarianism –government focused on happiness for greater number of people 
Bentham –influenced utilitarianism and wanted to create codes of scientific law 
Poor Law –set out to make poverty undesirable out of all social situations
Repeal of the Corn Laws 1846 –after Irish famine, they had to open British ports to foreign grain which lowered tariffs
Saint-Simon –earliest of socialist, fought in American Revolution and had a career of writing and concern for order
Owen –believer in environmentalist psychology of the Enlightenment from Locke 
Fourier –believed industrial order ignored passionate side of human nature
Phalanxes –part of the army
Blanc –led a social as well as political revolution among the working class groups of Paris 
Blanqui –French political activist
Proudhon –represented strain of anarchism in What is Property 
Marx –German philosopher, historian, theorist, sociologist, and economist
Engels –father of the communist theory
Communist Manifesto –very influential book written in 1848
June Days –barricades in Paris that troops were set out to destroy
Louis Bonaparte: Napoleon III –elected president of France but bad leader that fought with National Assembly and changed France from a republic to Caesarism
Lamartine –poet that led the liberal opposition during revolution
March Laws –mandated equality of religion, jury trials, election of lower chamber, freedom of press, and nobles pay taxes 
Czech nationalism –wanted Czech provinces of Bohemia and Moravia to be permitted to constitute and autonomous state within empire 
Il Risorgimento (resurgence or regeneration) –a newspaper meaning “The Reasurence” 
Young Italy –political movement to create a unified Italy 
Cavour –leading person in Italian unification 

Mazzini –Italian republic nationalist

Gioberti –Italian philosopher

Garibaldi –Italian republican nationalist that attempted to lead an army north against Austria but was defeated

Victor Emmanuel II –king’s son during defeat of Battle of Novara

Pius IX –renounced liberalism and bécame arch conservative 
Frederick William IV –leader of Russia that didn’t want to use his troops but said Prussia would help to unify Germany 
“crown from the gutter” –when the king refused to accept the crown from revoultionaries 

Frankfurt Parliament –representatives from all German states revising organization of German confederation

Chapter 22


Some terms were already identified in the last chapter; add their role in the events of this chapter

Crimean War:

Crimean War- Rights of Catholic vs. rights of Orthodox, Russia lost many alliances,

Concert of Europe shattered- was shattered due to the Crimean War

English isolationism- Conservative ideology 

Unification of Italy-  many countries helped toward their unification

Carbonari-  ineffective and famous, one of the many secret republican societies throughout Italy

Pius IX-  experience with Roman Republic in 1849 keeping Italy not politically tied

Mazzini-  leader of romantic republican nationalism that founded Young Italy Society

Garibaldi-  led in surrections with Mazzini and Roman Republic

Cavour-  prime minister of Piedmont made constitutional monarchy in Italy possible

Victor Emmanuel II-  King of Italy in 1861

Transformismo-  system in new Italian government in which bribery, favors, or a seat in the cabinet “transformed” political opponents into government supporters

Bismarck-  Prussian representative to German Confederation and ambassador that needed stong industrial base

Unification of Germany-  transformed balance of economic military and international power, unified by conservative army, the monarchy, and prime ministers of Prussia, which caused a French and Hapsburg weakness

“Blood and Iron” -  part of Bismarck’s speech when becoming prime minister

Schleswig-Holstein & the Danish War-  Bismarck defeated the Danish because Denmark was totally separate nationalities

Austro-Prussian War (Seven Weeks War)-  tension between Austria and Prussia led to this war in which Austria was defeated and Prussia was a major power of Germany

Bundesrat- German student organization that was in favor of nationalism during post-Napoleonic

Reichstag-  bicameral imperial parliament with upper chamber appointed by emperor and indirectly elected lower chamber

Franco-Prussian War-  Leopold got throne to Spain while Prussia knew France would object to Hohenzollern Spain, and Bismarck tricked France into declaring war to help unify Germany 

Ems Dispatch-  published by Bismarck

Alsace & Lorraine-  annexed from Germany after peace settlement with France

France struggles towards democracy-  different monarchs had different views about what type of government France should be

Napoleon III-  French emperor that declared war of Russia with Britain and Ottomans in Crimean War

Paris Commune 1871- new municipal government elected by Parisians intending to administer Paris separately from rest of France

Third Republic-  republican system in which a Chamber of Deputies elected by invresal male suffrage, as senate chosen indirectly, and a president elected by two legislative houses

Marshal MacMahon-  president and conservative army officer

Boulanger affair-  tried to impose political authority over the established republican system 

Boulanger- challenged the Third Republic

Dreyfus Affair- captain Dreyfus was found guilty of passing secret information to German army but the letter was forged and he was released

J’Accuse”-  newspaper aricle by Emilie Zola saying that the army had denied due process to Dreyfus and had forged evidence it accused

Francis Joseph-  emperor of Austria-Hungary

February Patent- constitution of Austria

Reichsrat-  lower house chosen by universal male sufferage with little real power

Dual Monarchy- Francis Jeoseph came to terms with Magyars and compromise of 1867 made Austria-Hungary monarchy

Ausgleich-  Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867

Nationalism in the Hapsburg Empire- people were proud to be part of this empire

Reforms of Alexander II-  abolition of serfdom, reform of local government and judicial system, military reform, and repression in Poland

Alexander II-  wouldn’t help preserve Habsburg rule in Hungary since Austria refused to support Russian Creimean war

“Emancipation” of the serfs- serfs given less land than needed to survive

Zemstvos- councils under Alexander II that over saw local matters like dridge and road repair that was made up of nobles

Russia attempts to rebel-  they tried to rebel against their monarch 
The People’s Will- people push for rights +

Alexander III-  reign streghnthened pessimism and improved Russian factories while strengthening police and increased censorhip of the press

Tolstoy-  Russian writer

Dostoevsky-  famous writer that wrote about Jews

Belgian Independence- 

Lord Palmerston -  said a very famous speech

Great Britain reforms –reforms were focused on voting and some for women 

Second Reform Act (1867) - 

Gladstone-  new prime minister that lowered taxes and government expenditures

Disraeli-  led conservative ministry and introduced reform bill of 1867

Irish Question; Home Rule-  Irish nationalists wanted to control their local government while Gladstone deestablished the Church of Ireland and the land act

Chapter 23



The Second Industrial Revolution:

Second Industrial Revolution-  period when rest of Europe caught up to Great Britain in industries such as steel, chemicals, electrics, and oil

Vertical monopolies-  different way industries can make money

Horizontal monopolies- different way industries can make money

Bessemer process- a new processs seen  in factories

Electricity- a new way of ;powering machines

Internal combustion engine- an engine seen in cars

1873 depression- several large banks failed and the rate of capital investment slowed

The Middle Classes in Ascendancy:

Grand Bourgeois- upper middle class

Entrepreneurs and Professionals- part of middle class

Petite Bourgeois- lower middle class

New forms of retailing- different ways to make money

Urban Life:

Redesign of cities-  cities now were designed for businesses, government offices, large stores, and the theater instead of housing

Suburban development- the building of towns around big cities

Water and sewer systems

Public Health Act of 1848 and Melun Act of 1851-  –put restraints on private life and enterprise; officers could enter homes in name of public health and condem property

Pasteur- french chemist

Housing reform-  reforms in housing 

Women and Family:

Family law-  stated for people to give obedience to the husband, made divorce difficult, made abortion illegal, and stated that the husband had the right to the children

Educational patterns- patterns of ewducation in industrial era 

Employment patterns for women-  had went out to work during wars but are now back in home or helping the husband with work

Working class women-  badly paid and worked in bad conditions, usually unmarried

Middle class women-  involved in consumerism and domestic comfort and helped at home as job

Cult of domesticity-  middle class women did not work and kept to mom and wife roles in the home

Separation of spheres- families worked together less and less as the work and home fields grew apart

Feminism-  idea that women are equal with men and that it should be shown in rights of law

J.S. Mill- English philosopher and economist

Millicent Fawcett- English suffragist who supported womans rights

Pankhurst- British political activist

Suffragettes- women who supported woman rights

Jewish Emancipation:

Differing degrees of citizenship- different levels of citizenship

Broadened opportunities- more opportunities for each social class

Anti-Semitism- prejudice or hatred of jews

Politics to WWI:

Trade Unionism- labor union

Syndicalism- economic system meant to eliminate capitalism

Rise of political parties- separation in political ideologies run against each other for important positions in government

First International-  International Working Men’s Association founded by group of British and French trade unionist sought to reform conditions of labor

Fabianism- wanted major social reform, many were civil servants who believed problems of industry could be stopped

Beatrice & Sidney Webb-  leading members of Fabianism

Shaw- writer

“Opportunism”-  participation by socialists in cabinets, issue debated in Amsterdam Congress of Second Internation

Juares-  believed socialists should cooperate with middle class radical ministires to ensure enactment of needed social legislation

Guesde-  rejected Juares, but still led a major faction of French socialists

Bismarck & the SPD-  suppressed organization, meetings, newspapers, and other public activies of German Social Democratic party

Erfurt Program-  declared the doom of capitalism and need of social ownership of means of production

Revisionism-  doctrines that argued that evolution toward social democracy might be possible in liberal parliamentary Britain

Bernstein- American composer, author, and writer

Witte’s program-  shortened work day, strong financial relation with French, and favored heavy industries 

Witte-  led Russia into industrial age

Mir-  village that peasants would own as a land communally

Kulaks-  peasants in Russia

Zemstvos- local coucils

Lenin-  two principles included elite party and a dual social revolution the led Bolsheviks

Bolsheviks-  Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party

Mensheviks-  were a faction of the Russian socialist movement that emerged in 1904

Revolution of 1905-  strikes broke out and soviets controlled city while Nicholas recaptured all lost ground

Bloody Sunday-  turning point where Russians couldn’t trust tsar or his government because of deaths

Nicholas II-  ruled Russia during the outbreak of World War I

Soviets-  worker groups

Duma-  representative body with two chambers created by Nicholas II

October manifesto- turning point where Russians couldn’t trust tsar or his government because of deaths

Stolypin-  replaced Witte and had little sympathy for parliament government

Rasputin-  monk that gained ascendancy with tsar because healed tsar’s son

Chapter 24



Educational advances- more people were being educated

Reading public- literacy rates were through the roof

Bureaucratization-  bureaucratic organization seen as basic feature of modern social life that involved division of labor as each individual fit into a particular role in larger organizations

Science at Mid-Century:

Comte-  developed positivism and argued that human thought had developed in three stages in The Positive Philosophy

Positivism-  philosophy of human intellectual development that culminated in science

Darwin-  published On the Origin of Species and came up with natural selection explaining how species changed and evolved overtime and thought of survival of the fittest

Natural selection- the idea that the fittest are able to evolve and that species is able to survive throughout time and avoid extinction

Spencer-  believes human society progresses through competition

Social Darwinism-  states that the strongest or fittest should survive

Thomas Henry Huxley- English biologist

The Church under Siege:

Intellectual skepticism- the smarter you are the easier it is to challenge your government

Strauss-  published The Life of Jesus where he questioned if the Bible has any genuine historical evidence of Jesus

Lyell-  suggested the earth is older than biblical records say and said that God didn’t physically develop the Earth

Christian morality- the idea that every body has to die

Kulturkampf-  means cultural struggle by Bismark against Catholic Church

Christian resurgence- more Christians then any other religion

Leo XIII-  pope after Pius IX and in Rerum Novarum he defended private property, religious education, religious control of marriage laws and protected workers

Science: The Revolution in Physics

Relativity- everything is attracted to each other

Planck-  led to the quantum theory of energy where energy is a series of discrete quantities instead of a continuous stream

Einstein-  published papers on relativity where time and space existed as combined continuum

19th Century Literature:

Realism- everything is real

Naturalism- the idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world

Dickens- english writer

Balzac-  portrayed cruelty of industrial life and of a society based on money

Flaubert-  wrote Madame Bovany portraying life without heros and purpose of civility

Zola-  argued he could write a novel where he could observe and report characters and actions as scientists do in labs and wrote about ugly aspects of life

Ibsen-  play writer that brought realism into plays, mainly about domestic life like in A Doll’s House and Ghosts

Shaw- defened Ibsen, and wrote Mrs. Warrens Profession and Man and Superman

Stravinsky –

Modernism-  new multifaced movement that was critical of middle class society and morality

Bloomsbury Group- 

Virginia Woolf-  wrote Mrs. Dalloway and To the Lighthouse to portray individuals seeking to make way in the world

John Maynard Keynes- British economist

Keynesian economics-  total spending in the economy and its effects on output and inflation

Proust-  French novelist, critic, and essayist

James Joyce-  Irish novelist and poet, considered to be one of the most influential writers

The Coming of Modern Art:

Impressionism-  19th-century art movement that originated with a group of Paris-based artists

Manet-  French painter

Monet-  founder of French Impressionist painting

Post-impressionism-  is the term coined by the British artist and art critic Roger Fry in 1910

Van Gogh-  post-Impressionist painter of Dutch origin

Cubism-  an early-20th-century avant-garde art movement pioneered by Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso

Picasso-  was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France

Friedrich Nietzsche:

Nietzsche-  German philologist, philosopher, cultural critic, poet and composer

The Birth of Tragedy-  from the Spirit of Music is an 1872 work of dramatic theory by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche

Thus Spake Zarathustra-  A Book for All and None is a philosophical novel by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche

The Birth of Psychoanalysis:

Psychoanalysis-  is a set of psychological and psychotherapeutic theories and associated techniques, originally popularised by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud

Freud-  Austrian neurologist who became known as the founding father of psychoanalysis

The Interpretation of Dreams- book by Sigmund Freud

Id- one of  the three parts of the psychic apparatus defined in Sigmund Freud's structural model of the psyche

Superego-  one of  the three parts of the psychic apparatus defined in Sigmund Freud's structural model of the psyche

Ego-  one of  the three parts of the psychic apparatus defined in Sigmund Freud's structural model of the psyche

Jung-  Swiss psychiatrist and psychotherapist who founded analytical psychology

Retreat from Rationalism in Politics:

Weber-  Weber was a German sociologist, philosopher, and political economist whose ideas influenced social theory, social research, and the entire discipline of sociology

Durkheim-  French sociologist, social psychologist and philosopher


Gobineau-  French aristocrat, novelist and man of letters who became famous for developing the theory of the Aryan master race

Tocqueville- French political thinker and historian best known for his Democracy in America

Chamberlain-  British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

Nationalism- love for your country and its cultural aspects

Birth of Zionism:

Herzl-  Jewish journalist and writer from Austria-Hungary

Zionism- founded by the Jewish herzl


Anti-feminism- no rights for women

Contagious Diseases Acts

Auguste Ficke-  a German philologist

Ellen Key-  Swedish difference feminist writer on many subjects

Chapter 25


“New Imperialism” –was when European countries all went deeper into colonies like Africa in search of industrial raw materials and new markets. This type of expansion gave countries power.

“spheres of influence” –when powerful nations mess with smaller ones

“Scramble for Africa” –between 1870 and 1900 when European powers tried to maximize their control of Africa and raw materials

Open Door Policy –opposed foreign annexations in China and allowed all nations to trade there on equal terms, proposed by the United States

Spanish-American War –United States joined when Cuba wanted to break from Spain and won Cuba and Puerto Rica. Spain no longer had any colonies in western hemisphere.

Jingoism –super patriotism, the name came from a hall song

War in the Balkans –Austro-Russian rivalry, Russia won which affected the balance of power in the world

Three Emperors’ League of 1873 –brought three conservative emperors of Germany, Austria, and Russia together

Congress of Berlin –met in Germany, Russian Bulgaria was reduced, and Austria-Hungary, Britain, and France were given land

Treaty of San Stefano –Russian triumph in March 1878

“Eastern Question”: Pan-Slavism –they didn’t know what to do about Ireland

“honest broker”: Bismarck vs. Wilhelm II –formed the Bismarckian alliance in which Germany and Austria would aid each other if Russia attacked

Triple Alliance –secret alliance with Italy, Germany, and Austria

Triple Entente –associated Britain, France, and Russia and settled Russo-Britain fights in Central Asia and led to more cooperation

“a place in the sun” –what William II refered to as being the leading power of Europe

“the sun never set on British soil” –bad response to William II

Boer War –when Britain crushed a rebellion by South African farmers

Entente Cordiale –series of agreements between Great Britain and France settled all colonial differences and aligned Great Britain with German enemy

First Moroccan crisis –Germany challenged France’s rule to Morocco and in meeting Great Britain sided with France

Young Turks –group of modernizing reformers that seized power in Ottoman Empire

Bosnian crisis –Russia agreed to support Austrian annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in return for Austrian backing for opening Dardanelles to Russia warships but Austria acted before Russia could

First Balkan War –Montenegro and Serbia attacked Ottoman Empire in 1912

Second Balkan War –ended in 1913 when Austria issued an ultimatum and Serbia withdrew forces from Albania

Black Hand –political terrorist society also called Union or Death

Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand –Serbian nationalist killed heir to Austrian throne, thought to be from a conspiracy and thought that Serbian officials were involved. Austria then wanted to attack back.

Schlieffen Plan –Germany wanted to outflank French frontier defenses by sweeping through Belgium to channel then wheeling to south and east to crush French

War in the West –based on position, not movement and many new strategies, and focused on defense

War in the East –focused on allies like Italy and allies tried to break west trying to capture Constantinople

“splendid isolation” –foreign policy used by Britain

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk –treaty between Russia and central powers marking Russia’s exit from WWI

Provisional Government in Russia –composed of Constitutional Democrats with western sympathies

Bolsheviks –demanded that all political power go to the soviets

Mensheviks –part of Russian revolutionary movement

“white Russians” –opposed revolution

Treaty of Versailles –one of the peace treatise at the end of World War I. It ended state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers and led to negotiations at Paris but didn’t completely solve anything.

Fourteen Points –idealistic principles, including self determination for nationalities, open diplomacy, freedom of the seas, etc. to keep the peaces

League of Nations –establishment was part of fourteen points. It was a body of sovereign states that agreed to pursue common policies and to consult in common interest like when war is threatened

Reparations –most debated part of peace settlement that were German caused damages

JM Keynes –most influential economic critic of treaty that wrote Economic Consequences of the Race


War Communism –when the government had control of everything including economy like banks, industry, and transportation system

Cheka –secret police that emerged during White Russian vs. Red Army revolution

“Peace, Bread, and Land” –slogan representing alliance of workers and peasants

Kronstadt rebellion –an unsuccessful left-wing uprising

New Economic Policy –the government would tolerate private enterprise because the peasants were upset and revolted about them taking all of their grain for the new army they were building. Peasants could now farm for profit.

“socialism in one country” –Stalin’s thought meaning socialism, aka communism, could be achieved in Russia without any help or influence from other nations

Pravda –means Truth, and was the official communist party newspaper

Third International; Comintern –founded by Soviet communists working to make Bolshevik the model of socialism and wanted to destroy democratic socialism. It produced many new parties in different countries.

March on Rome –known as Black Shirt March, when Mussolini and followers were sent by voters to the Chamber of Deputies

Rapallo –where Russia and Germany signed treaty that made diplomatic and economic relations and proved that Germany would not follow Versailles treaty

General Strike of 1926 –during Great Britains “depression” because no post war recovery so tried to help by starting trade but conversion rate went too high and now they got money by cutting wages, especially in the coal industry so they went on strike and others joined them. It lasted nine days

Sinn Fein –“ourselves alone” movement after Britain killed rebelling nationalists in Dublin during WWI

Irish Home Rule bill –Ireland became a free state which was issued after WWI

Corfu Pact: formation of Yugoslavia from Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes

Weimar Republic –headed by social democrats, had to accept the bad things that came from Versailles Treaty and had a constitution with direct election, universal suffrage, etc.

Invasion of the Ruhr –when French invaded the Ruhr after Germany’s currence dropped in value (inflation) because they wanted reparations

SA – “Sturmabteilung” also known as storm troopers. It was a parliamentary organization with uniforms that used terror and intimidation under nazi control before they controlled the government

Roehm –placed in charge of the SA

Kapp putsch –uprising led by Hitler when sixteen Nazis were killed and Hitler used the trial to make himself a national hero

Locarno –Agreements in 1952. Germany was now respected and could revise the east, etc. It brought hope to Europe and all were happy

Cult of personality –when an individual uses things such as the media to create himself as a heroic image, such as what Hitler did

“the vital lie” –when one lies for the good of an organization or group

Nazism –National Socialism mainly in Germany involving fascism, racism, and strong anti-Semitism


Stalin –wanted to lead communist party after Lenin’s death when slow economy. He thought to keep NEP and slow industries and that it didn’t depend on other countries. He eventually gained control

Trotsky –urged rapid industrialization that was paid for by farm products and thought Russia needed skills of other nations to help build their economy

Bukharin –editor of Pravada (official communist party newspaper that voiced Stalin’s ideas)

Mussolini –led Italian facist movement and appointed prime minister and got facism as single party dictorial state

Briand –made peace-making policy after France disrupted Germany and countries now felt bad

David Lloyd George –became prime minister of Great Britain after disagreements over war management

Masaryk –leader of Czechoclovakia, helping it become a modern nation state

Schuschnigg –ruled Austria after Dollfus was shot after outlawing political parties

Hitler –Germany political leader that took in German naitonism, racism, and lots of anti-semitism and hated Marxism

Stresemann –reconstructed republic when trying to repair damage caused by inflations and introduced new currency

Roehm –army officer and eventual Nazi leader

Chapter 27

Inflation –when national value of currency dramatically declines like in Germany

Mixed economy –also known as balanced economy in which it has both private and public control

Reparations –German payments from damage they caused in WWI

Dawes Plan –reorganized payment of reparations, smoothing dept repayments to United States

Kreditanstalt –a large bank in Vienna that collapsed and Germany couldn’t pay their reparations

Lausanne Conference –ended era of reparations because Germany economy collapsed

Great Depression –time period in Great Britain with low wages, unemployment, bad industry, etc.

Keynesian economics –said that private economic decisions will effect the public economy

Popular Front –coalition of al left wing parties to preserve republic and press for social reform

Stavisky affair –Stravisky was involved in fraudulent bond scheme but commited suicide when police found him. It showed corruption of republican politics

Blum’s government –raised wages, workers got vacations, made forty hour work week, and established justice in labor field

Reichstag –consisted of twelve Nazis and fifty four communists then 107 Nazis and 77 Communists after 1930

SS –“protective force” that was the chief vehicle of police survallence

Anti-Semitism –against Jews and excluded them from civil service and boycotted their shops

Kristallnacht –when Jewish stores and synagogs were burned and destroyed in 1938 under nazi party organization

Weimar Constitution –said ruler could take over fully at certain times and was never fully repealed

March Enabling Act –permitted Hitler to rule by decree and his power had no legal limits

Nazi economic policy –no strikes, sacrified all political and civil liberties, destroyed free trade union movement, limited private exercises of capital and ignored consumer satisfaction

Night of long knives –nazi’s carried out series of political executions mainly those in SA

Nuremburg Laws –took away German Jew’s citizenship and couldn’t marry non-Jews

Women in Nazi Germany –had to raise pure children that weren’t Jewish and gypsy, etc. Women were killed that were “undesirable” and many worked because the Nazi’s would protect their jobs as agricultural laborers, teachers, nurses, social servicers, and domestic servants

Syndicates –represented labor and management in major industry

Corporations in Italy –reorganized industrial syndicates. There were 22 in whole economy and were groups of individual companies into major areas of production

Kulaks –group of kind of wealthy peasants that made up less than five percent of country. They were very productive and effiencent, but peasants were accused of hoarding grain for eventual better consumer prices. These were said to cause the agricultural shortage.

Collectivization –replacenment of private peasant farms with huge state run and state owned farms called collectives. Many peasants rejected this idea.

Stalin’s purges –many were executed under the leadership of Stalin

“Old Bolsheviks” –members of the Bolshevik party before the revolution in Russia

Corporatism –economic, political, and social system based on the individual

Great Purges –series of huge mass murder across soviet union by Stalin


MacDonald –head of second minority labour government that took office in Great Britain while unemployment was rising. He wanted to cut the budget, educe government salaries, and cut unemployment benefits

Chamberlain –replaced Macdonald, known for Munich agreement with Hitler

Deladier –radical minister

Blum –led French socialists, led France during strikes and corruption and pushed many reforms

Von Hindenburg –president of Germany during the rise of the Nazis

Goring –Germany political and military leader that was a member of the Nazis

Goebbels –politcian and member of Nazis

Mussolini –Italian politician that led the fascist party

Lenin –Russian Marxist that was an author, philosopher, lawyer and economic theorist

Stalin –ruled Russia with good economic policy

Kirov –popular party chief of Leningrad and member of Politburo assassinated in 1934 and started purges


Lebensraum –means “living space,” when Germany needed some, they took it from the Slaves

League of Nations –failed because no one held up to its standards and Germany, Great Britain and more violated them

Italian Attack on Ethiopia –Mussolini of Italy attacked Ethiopia because of border dispute but defeated and wanted revenge

Rome-Berlin Axis –alliance between Nazi Germany and fascist Italy also known as Pact of Steel

Remilitarization of the Rhine Land –Hitler took risk and invaded Rhineland against the League of Nations and nobody stopped him, showing his powerfulness

Appeasement –Anglo-French policy making concessions to Germany in the 1930s to avoid a crisis that would lead to war based on assumption that Germany had real grievances and Hitler’s aims limited and aceptable

Maginot Line –French defensive wall used during German attack

Spanish Civil War –government collapsed and had democratic republic which didn’t meet peasants needs and during elections falangists and fascists lost but wouldn’t except defeat and Gerneral Franciso Franco led army against representatives lasting three years, with many lives lost, and preparation for WWI

Anschluss-union of Germany and Austria which violated Versailles

Sudentenland –in Czachoslovakia near German border with many Germans which angered Hitler

Munich Conference –made up of Germany, Italy, France, and Great Britain on September 29 where Hitler received what he wanted

Churchill’s Response to Munich –he was very concerned about the balance of power

Invasion of Czechoslovakia –Germany invaded when trying to expand Germany

Invasion of Poland –Germany wanted them to restore German city of Dazia and allow railroad and highway but they wouldn’t

Soviet Pact –secret and divided Poland between Germany and Russia and allowed Rusia to ocupty Baltic States and take Bessarabia from Romania

Blitzkrieg –new “lightning warfare” in air using planes

Sitzkrieg -quiet part of in west called the phony war

Battle of Dunkirk –between the allies and Germany

Battle of Britain –Britain was on their own after the fall of France but had United States as an allie but Germany, for revenge, bombed London every night but Hitler lost the battle in the air

Luftwaffe –German airforce

RAF –Royal Air Force

Operation Barbarossa –against Russia, Germans destroyed 2,000 Russian planes

“Hitler’s plans for Europe” –he would try to talk control of everything and form his Third Reign (Empire)

“final solution” –what Hitler refered to the Holocaust as

Holocaust –Nazi extermination of million of European Jews

Battle of Coral Sea –sank Japanese ships and protected Australia

Siege of Leningrad –when Germany tried to capture Leningrad

Battle of Stalingrad –Russians lost many m en, Germany wanted the city, they gave Russia power even though they lost all of army

“precision bombing” –American tactic they would use to constantly bomb Germany

Bombing of Dresden –February 1945, devastated German air force

“D-day” –on June 6, 1944, when allies landed on France coast to fight Germans

Battle of the Bulge –Germans launched attack in Belgioum and Luxembourg

Capture of Berlin –Russia got Berlin and Hitler commited suicide

“island hopping” –when America tried to get back major island bases from japan

Iwo Jima –fell due to kamikaze and suicide missions and got the U.S. closer to Japan for bombings

Battle of Coral Sea; Midway; Guadal Canal –naval battle between japan and all allied forces including the United States

Hiroshima and Nagasaki –United States issued atomic bomb attacks on these two Japanese cites

Vichy government –government of France that allied them with others for industrialization purposes

“Blitz” –strategic bombing of Britain by German Nazis

“great Patriotic War” –describes war with Germany and the allies in the eastern front

Atlantic Charter –policy by Britain and U.S. in beginning of World War II. It stated that there would be no territorial changes, self-governments would be restored, freedom of seas, secured economy, and more.

Tehran –where key allied leaders Roosevelt, Stalin, and Church met during the war

Yalta –where meeting with United States, Britain, and Russia was held

Potsdam –last of the meetings of world war II

Third Reich –a German Empire in which Hitler was trying to develop

Untermenschen –used by Nazis to describe the inferior people

Judenrein –“clean of Jews”


Franco –ruled Spanish state

Churchill –prime minister of England that formed an alliance with Roosevelt

Roosevelt –president of the United States that came to Britain’s aid

Rommel –“Desert Fox” and a German general that drove the British back into Egypt

Eisenhower –general during world war I

Hirohito –emperor of Japan that formed alliances with Germany and Italy

De Gaulle –French general during world war II

Truman –headed the senate during world war II

Atlee –prime minister of England

Chapter 29

Cold War –between United States and Soviet Union, in which many allies against the east and west formed

Iron Curtain –declared by Churchill which represented the divided free and democratic west and a totalitarian east

Containment –American policy to resist the extension of Soviet expansion and influence

Marshall Plan –provided economic aid to European states if they would work together for their mutual benefit

Comintern –communist international founded in Moscow

Berlin Blockade –soviets cut off city of Berlin by closing all railroads and highways leading to Germany in order to drive out western powers

NATO –North Atlantic Treaty Organization which committed its members to mutual assistance if attacked. It was between Belgium, Netherlands, Luxemberg, France, Britain, Italy, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Iceland, Canada, United States, Germany, Greece, and Turkey.

Warsaw Pact –gave informal recognition to soviet domination of Eastern Europe through local communist parties controlled from Moscow

Korean War –during WWII, kicked out Japan from Korea, but now it was divided between United States and Russia but wanted unification so invaded. The united states wanted to stop the spread of communism.

U. S. domestic problems & policies –Truman Doctrine, wanted to keep communism where it was

Civil rights –African Americans were gaining rights

War on poverty –many suffered unemployment

Watergate –political scandal when the Democratic National Committee headquarters was broken into at the Watergate office complex

War in Vietnam –war in Vietnam during the cold war fought between communists supported by Soviet Union and non-communists supported by the United States

Khrushchev’s domestic policies –meet demand for consumer goods and remove restrictions on agriculture and increase grain production

“secret speech –Khrushchev denounced Stalin and his crimes against socialist justice during 1930s purges and Stalin lost all his support

1956 Suez –conflict over Egyptian canal, but France and Britain didn’t continue war, proving how weak west was without the United States

Poland –prime minister died but with Gomulka took over and he was well-liked, cooperative, improved Roman Catholic Church relationship

Hungary –removed from Warsaw Pact and neutralized which angered Soviet Union who invaded

1960 Paris Summit –it was destroyed which demonstrated Soviet Union’s bad attitude toward capitalist world

Berlin Wall –separated east and west, stoping flow of refugees

Cuban Missile Crisis –very dangerous, extreme shooting attack on Cuba

Invasion of Czechoslovakia –Soviets sent troops to replace leaders with communists leaders

Brezhnev era –time when soviet union could interfere in domestic parties of communist countries

Dissidents –released from prisons in 1938 when Gorbachev tried to reform Soviet Union

Invasion of Afghanistan –Brezhnev government of Russia invaded to ensure influence in central Asia

Solidarity in Poland –had secret elections with debates but ended when established martial law

EEC –European economic community to bring economic integration

Balfour declaration –policy by British government

Six Days War –in June between Israel and neighboring countries

PLO –Palestine liberation organization

Indifada –arabic word meaning “shaking off”

Persian Gulf Crisis –UN coalition of thirty four nations led by the United States against Iraq

Perestroika –restructuring in Soviet government they reduced the size and importance of centralized economic ministries

Chapter 30

NEW PATTERNS IN WORK –labor shortages, import new laberors like Muslims, women have more power and are getting manajor positions, more married women in work force, no child laborers

Arab oil embargo –sent two messages to other countries: Natural resources are lmited and foreign, potentially hostil, countries control ctirical resources

Welfare State –government started to spend more on welfare than military, mad possible by the NA defense system. It provided insuracen, security, medical care, old-age pensions, and unemployment

Greens – political party in Germany that were concerned with environmental issues

Existentialism –challenged traditional intellectual attitudes and continued revolt against reason from the nineteenth century, they were very divided

Kierkegaard –writer that rebelled against Hegelian philosophy and Danish Lutheranism and thought truth of Christianity was in lives of those who faced extreme conditions, not in creeds, doctrins, and Church structure. Wrote Either/Or

Sartre –an existentialist writer that questioned primacy of reason and scientific understanding as ways to come to gris with human situation

Camus –an existentialist that wrote The Plague and thought human beings are compelled to formulate their own ethical values and cannot depend on traditional customs or guidelines

Neo-orthodoxy –Barth’s theology that God was wholly and not human

Barth –Swiss pastor that published A Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans which reemphasized transcendence of God and the dependence of human kind on the divine

John Paul II –elected 1978 maintained traditionalist doctrine, supported freedom in Eastern Europe and encouraged growth of Church in non-western world

Attlee – British labor politician that served as prime minister

Thatcherism –describes the political and economic policy of Margaret Thatcher, who served as long time prime minister for England

Falklands War –fought between United Kingdom and Argentina over the Falkland islands

Irish Republican Army –Irish republican revolutionary military organization

De Gaulle –French general that led to the Free French forces in World War II

Fifth Republic –current constitution system of France that is a semi-presidential system

Algerian independence –movement that brought upon a war between Austria and France

Mitterand –French president

Economic miracle –term for rapid reconstruction of German economy

Brandt –German politician who was chancellor of West Germany and led the Social Democratic Party of Germany

Ostpolitik –German term for the “change through rapprochement” policy

Adenauer –German statesman that helped Germany through ruins it was in after World War II

Kohl –successful German chancellor

Perestroika –means restructuring and was a communist movement in the Soviet Union

Gorbachev –statesman that served as General Secretary of the Communist Party in the Soviet Union

Glasnost –policy of publicizing what goes on in the government in the Soviet Union

Sakharov –Soviet nuclear physicist in the Soviet Union

Walesa –Polish politician, trade organizer, and human-rights activist

ENIAC –Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer, first machine recognized as modern digital computer used by US army in 1946

European Union –by Treaty of Maastricht, EEC was unified with same currency(euro) and strong central bank