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Key Terms

Renaissance- "rebirth" in French. It is the revival of learning and ideas. Plus secular beliefs and science are seen from Italy.

Rise of nation-states- Small states and other areas that all belong one leader unify to create one single nation.

New Monarchy- 15th century, monarchs build centralized governments through the military which led to economic growth. 

Rise of Towns-  In Italy, merchants began to develop skills like organization which led to the growth of the middle class. This in turn led to the rise of towns.

Impact of Printing Press- Everybody knew what was happening and where due to the literature that could be spread easily.

Popolo Grosso- The growth of the middle class led people like bankers to become rich fast.

Popolo minuto- This was the name for lower class Italians.

Medici- A rich family that took rule in the late middle ages over Florence, Italy.

Condottieri- mercenary army

Milan- ruled by despotism, city in northern Italy, Duchy of Milan is between Republic of Genoa and Republic of Venice.

Venice- city in Northern Italy, borders Greece, rich in trade, merchants rule

Naples- southern Italy, despotism

Lorenzo the Magnificent (aka Lorenzo de’ Medici)- Ruler of Florence in 15 century, his government had total authority over the society it ruled.

Borgia- family related to Pope Alexander IV

Pope Alexander VI- Pope that was married already, gave power to his friends and family and made horrible foreign deals he also was considered the worst pope of a ll time. 

Pope Julius I- Kept french out of Italy

Platonism- following the philosophy of Platonism which say that all things are copies of ideas

Humanism- scholarly study of the Latin and Greek classics and Ancient Church Fathers, to revive ancient norms and values.

Civic Humanism- study embracing grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, politics, and moral philosophy.

Religous Humanism- humanism that includes the belief in God

School of Europe- States in Italy named in the 15th century for their output of ideas.

Petrach- ''father of humanism''

Dante- author of humanism

Boccaccio- made an encyclopedia of greek and roman mythology

Lorenzo Valla- author many ideas of the renaissance but he was criticized for his anti-papal views

Machiavelli- student of Ancient Rome, know for his ruthless government that he wrote about in his book The Prince.

Erasmus- well know humanist who put humanist ideas and put them into religion.

Giotto- father of Renaissance painting from Florence, Italy

Donatello- early renaissance sculptor

Leonardo Da Vinci- painter of the Mona Lisa, best painter of all time

Raphael- Painted School of Athens in which you can see many philosophers

Michelangelo- painted frescoes in Sistine Chapel

Benvenuto Cellini- famous sculptor, statue of Perseus

Titian- Italian painter, part of Venetian School

Mannerism- period of European art that showed up 1520.Known for intellectual sophistication.

El Greco- Painter and sculptor of Spanish renaissance.

Estates General- was a legislative assembly of the different classes of French subjects.

Taille- direct tax on French peasants and non-nobles

Jacquerie- revolt in northern France by peasants.

Louis XI- rebuild of France after the Hundred Years War, devious and disobedient

Richard III- unpopular king of England who ruled after King Edwards son

Golden Bull- 1356, issued by Charles IV, defined the structured constitution in the Holy Roman Empire.

Charles IV- German was Roman King

Maximilian I- banned private warfare 

Aztecs- Rulers of Central Mexico, demanded heavy in goods and labor from their subjects

Incas- In Peru, second largest Native American civilization

Conquistadors- Spanish that took land away from the Incas and Aztecs

Encomienda- Formal grant to the labor of a specific number of Indians

Columbus- Explorer who was trying to find a fast route to the East but came across the Caribbean Islands.

Economy of exploitation- slavery

Pope John XXII- most powerful Avignon pope

Lollards- Followers of John Wycliffe who was kicked out of Oxford University for questioning the Church

Marsilius of Padua - leader of secularism

Jacob Burckhardt- he thought that if Italy learned the 14th and 15 it would increase secularism and science.


Transubstantiation- the belief that the bread and win is the body and blood of Christ

Indulgences- Money given to the church to guarantee your salvation or to get relatives out of purgatory

John Tetzel- famous indulgence speaker.

Vernacular-  the regular language which was used by the people instead of Latin.  

Modern Devotion- boarding school for reform-minded laity.

Thomas a Kempis- German who wrote the book called On the Imitation of Christ, 

Martin Luther-a German theologian, who played most likely the largest part in the Protestant Reformation, was against indulgences and papal authority

95 Theses- about the sale of indulgences which was written by Luther

Justification by Faith Alone: Luther said to get salvation all you needed was faith and keep good deeds as your part of everyday life

Charles V: revived German Imperial Supreme Court & the Council of Regency, helped Reformation.

Edict of Worms- because of Luthers 95 theses this labeled him as a heretic and had his writing banned. 

"Here I Stand!": a book by Roland H. Baiton about Luther and his life

Peasants Revolt (1525)- Peasants revolted saying Luther approved, he did not because he wanted a reformation, not a revolution

Ulrich Zwingli- began a reformation movement in Switzerland against the Catholic Church.

John Calvin- he wrote Institutes of Christian Religion. he was a French theologian. he was forced to stay in Geneva so he did and began to make guidlines for his new church

Calvinism- replaced Lutherism as the dominant Protestant force , divine predestination and reorder society to God's plan

Predestination- God had already decided whether or not you were going to heaven or hell, this belief was seen in calvinism. 

Michael Servetus- executed by John Calvin's judgment

Anti-Trinitarians- radical Protestants strongest group against Calvinism.  

Spiritualists- group of Protestant . believed that anybody willing to listen can here spiritual orders

Anabaptists- only believed in adult baptism did not want infant baptism. 

Grebel & Swiss Bretheren-   Grebel started the radical idea of Anabaptism, Swiss Bretheren was part of Grebel's followers.

Jansenists- humans with original sin could not save themselves, they would need grace from God

Peace of Augsburg- recognized the split of Christianity between Roman Chatholic and Protestant religions

Cuis Region, Eius religio- gave the ruler of the land the right to choose the official religion.

Henry VIII- married brothers wife after he died but, only to cheat on her

Act of Supremacy- mad Henry the supreme ruler of England

Edward VI- was the king during the reformation

English Reformation: protestant ideas came to England in the early 16th century.

Ignatius of Loyola- leader of counter reformation, was a soldier who followed religion strictly

Council of Trent - council overseen by the Pope which led reforms to respond to the reformation

Counter Reformation- an attempt by Roman Catholics to regain some of its followers

Education and literacy: education and literary skyrocketed at this point

Humanism’s affect on the Reformation: humanism had very similar ideas to those of the Protestants

Women in the Reformation- in journal for this chapter i explain how women are treated with more respect

Changing family life - More marriages, parents have more respect for children

Wet nurses - Nurses care for baby

Miguel de Cervantes: author of Don Quixote

Don Quixote- story about a guy trying to be a hero but is just a comedian

William Shakespeare- pretty obvious but the greatest writer of all time and he wrote many stories, sonnets, and poems.

Chapter 12
Religious war- a war cause by the differences in religion
Politique- rulers who put success of the state before everything
Cuius region, eius religio-  "Whose realm, his religion" the ruler of the state's religion dictated the state's religion
France- Had religious wars with Protestants vs. Catholic 
Spain- allied with Catholic forces vs. the Protestants
Holy Roman Empire- Germany, fought Bohemia during first stage of 30 years war

Francis II- king at 15, short rule was dominated by onset of religious wars, tension between protestant and Catholics
Huguenots- members of the Protestant church of France, Calvinism
Theodore Beza- French Protestant theologian, disciple of John Calvin
Guises-  powerful family from Eastern France 
Bourbon- powerful family from south and west France 
Prince of Conde- 
Montmorency-Chatillions- powerful family that ruled the center of France, supported the Huguenots
Gaspard de Coligny- French nobleman who was known as a leader of the Huguenots
Catherine de Medici- Named Queen of France, she tried to unite the Protestant and Catholics but it didn't work, so she consulted with the Protestants to maintain the the Monarchy
St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre- 20,000 Huguenots were massacred, 
John Knox-Scottish clergy, founder of Presbyterian church in Scotland, leader of Reformation
Henry IV of Navarre-First French Monarch of the House of Bourbon
Edict of Nantes (1598)- issued by  Henry IV of Navarre, granted Calvinists rights in France 

Francis I v. Charles V (1515-1559)-  Capture of French king Francis I by Emperor Charles V in 1525 provided a motive for Protestant persecution in France
Golden Age of Spain- 
Escorial- the home of the King of Spain in Central Spain near modern day Madrid
Philip II- King of Spain and Portugal. Married to Queen Mary makes him King of England and Ireland while also being an heir to the throne of Netherlands.
Battle of Lepanto (1571)- A naval battle between European catholic forces and the main fleet of the Ottoman empire
Defeat of the Spanish Armada- Spanish fleet comes to England to overthrow Queen Elizabeth but is defeated and driven back to Spain by England
William of Orange- King of England, Scotland, and Ireland and as a Protestant had many wars against the French
Cardinal Granvelle- a politician made Cardinal, part of Hapsburg,
Duke of Alba-  one of the main titles of Spain and historically, one of the most powerful families in Europe
Spanish Fury- the slaughtering, looting, and raping of Spanish towns by Spanish army
Pacification of Ghent (1576)- Alliance between Hapsburg's of Netherlands and rebelling forces of Holland and Zeeland
Revolt of the Netherlands- successful revolt of Protestants against King Phillip II of spain

Mary I- Bloody Mary,  brutal killings of Protestants
Congregationalists- form of Protestants
Edward VI- King of England and Ireland, war with Scotland
Elizabeth I- first politique, Queen of England
Mary, Queen of Scots- queen of Scotland, 6 days old when father died and she had to rule the Church.

Bohemian Period- First stage of 30 years war, Holy Roman Empire vs. Bohemia
Danish Period-
Swedish Period-
Swedish-French Period-
Defenestration of Prague- Protestants threw many Catholic council men out of a window, the men survived because they fell in manure, (Bohemia)
Wallenstein- A mercenary hired by King Ferdinand of the Holy Roman Empire who was later executed for becoming very powerful and above the law
Cardinal Richelieu- While gaining power in Catholic Church, he grew to become the first prime minister in France.
Treaty of Westphalia- multiple treaties between Spain, France, Dutch, Holy Roman Empire, and the Swedish

Baroque art and music- used to scare Protestants back to the Catholic religion
Dutch school of art- the name for the height of the art in dutch throughout the high renaissance and the baroque period 
Rembrandt van Rijn- most important painter in dutch history
Johannes Vermeer- painter who specialized in scenes of the middle-class
Peter Paul Rubens- painted in the Baroque style of art
Pieter Breughel the Elder- landscapes and peasant scenes
Gian Bernini- credited with creating the Baroque style of sculpting

Chapter 13

Puritan Revolution (1642-49); English Civil War- Set of wars between Parliament and King in England
Rebellion in Ireland- Irish tried to take over the English rule in Ireland, they built the Irish Confederation which was free of English rule

Glorious Revolution (1688)- overthrowing of King James II, he was Catholic and had close ties to France, overthrown by eventaul King of England, William of Orange

War of Devolution- Louis XIV's French armies overrun Habsburg controlled Spanish Netherlands

War of Spanish Succession (1701-14)- war was fought between each side of Spain's allies who determined the next King of Spain

Divine right of kings- people can not judge a King, only God can judge him

Nonconformists- a person whose behavior or views do not conform to prevailing ideas or practices

Petition of Right-  English constitutional document that sets out specific liberties of the subject that the king is prohibited from infringing

Short Parliament- Parilemant of England that only lasted three weeks under Charles I

Mississippi Company, Bubble- This company became the company of the West and was a large buisness monopoly to the French

Whigs- political party against absolute power

Tories- wanted srong monarchry, rival with whigs

Magyars- A nation and an ethnic group native to and primarily associated with Hungarian people

Pragmatic Sanction- by Holy Roman Emperor, to allow Hapsburg succesion by a daughter

Junkers- members of nobility in Prussia

Streltsy- russian guardsmen

Boyars- members of the highest rank in feudal aristocracies on Bulgaria

Table of Ranks- ranks of military and government position in Russia

John Law-  Scottish economist who believed that money was only a means of exchange that did not constitute wealth in itself

Long Parliament- could only end when the members decided to

Grand Remonstrance- list of grievances given to King Charles II by the Long Parilament 

Roundheads- In the English Civil War, the people who supported the Parliament

New Model Army- formed by the Parliament in the English Civil War

Puritan Republic; Interregnum- After the English Civil War, Puritans imposed their life style on the country

Navigation Acts- series of laws that made the British colonies stop trading with other countries

Test Act

Popish plot- a fake conspiracy that scared England of the assassination of Charles II, led to 22 murders

Bill of Rights- a bill that declares the human rights that belong to the people of that nation

Toleration Act- freedom given to nonconformists

Parlements- political institution in France

Intendants-  holder of a public administrative office

Raison d’etat-  A state interest, especially when invoked as politically superior to moral or even legal considerations

Fronde- series of civil wars in France

L’etat, c’est moi- Louis XIV said this,,, meaning "I am the state"

Versailles- palace for the royal family in France

Jansenists-  anew theological movement

Revocation of Edict of Nantes- Louis XIV did this, making Protestant life intolerable

Treaty of Aix la Chapelle- ended the war Austian succession

League of Augsburg- made to stop Louis XIV expansions

Treaty of Utrecht- series of individual peace treaties

James I: rejected the Puritans, ended much needed peace with Spain,

Charles I: English civil war, went to war with parliament

Chapter 14:

Experimentation-methods of experimentation battled for public support.

Ptolemaic system- explanation of the universe

Deductive Reasoning- a way to reach a logical statment derived from multiple statements

Empiricism-the use of experiment and observation

Scholasticism- 2 truths: god is true and bible is true

Rationalism- intellectual truths and not sensory evidence

Baroque art & music- style of art and music made popular by the Counter-Reformation- very dramati, trying to scare protestants back to Catholicism

Copernicus- heliocentric model of the solar system

Brahe- Danish astronomer heliocentric model vs. the geocentric model

Kepler- German mathematician, teacher, and astronomer 

Galileo- best known for his improvements to the telescope and support for the heliocentric model

Newton- considered one of the most influential scientists of all time, created the laws of motion and law of universal gravitation that are still used today

Cervantes- influenced by Catholic teaching as well as Spanish power, this Spanish author’s novels focused on tests of character that threatened the honor or reputation of a hero

Shakespeare- most famous author of all time, Shakespeare was the author of many plays, his works are revered by English teachers and scholars worldwide for their intricacy, elaborate characters and plots, and beautiful storytelling, his most famous works include Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, and A 

Midsummer Night’s Dream

Milton- English poet and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under Oliver Cromwell, wrote during a period of religious flux and political upheaval, best known for his epic poem Paradise Lost

Bunyon- author of The Pilgrim's Progress from This World to That Which Is to Come; Delivered under the Similitude of a Dream

Bacon- English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator and author, widely influential after his death for his advocating of scientific method

Descartes- French philosopher, mathematician, and writer, spent most of his life in the Dutch Republic, considered the “Father of Modern Philosophy”, much Western philosophy responds to his writings, which are still studied today

Pascal- child prodigy, inventor of mechanical calculator, member of Jansenists, created probability theory and projective geometry, clarified concepts of pressure and vacuum

Hobbes- author of Leviathan, created the foundation of Western philosophy that relied on social contract theory, which questioned the state’s power over the individual 

Locke- British empiricist, influential towards social contract theory, influenced many, including members of the American Revolution

Dante- author of The Divine Comedy and Vita Nuova, pioneer in Italian vernacular literature, used geocentric model in The Divine Comedy 

Novum Organum- philosophical work by Bacon, introduced a new system of logic that was allegedly superior to the old ways of syllogism

Principia Mathematica- written by Sir Isaac Newton, contains his laws of universal gravitation and his laws of motion

Richard III- play written by Shakespeare depicting the Machiavellian rise to power and subsequent short reign of Richard III

Pilgrim’s Progress- a Christian allegory written by John Bunyon, considered one of the most influential Christian works of all time, never been out of print, translated into more than 200 languages

Essay Concerning Human Understanding- written by John Locke, concerns the foundation of human knowledge and understanding in which Locked describes the mind at birth as a blank slate filled later through experience

Two Treatises of Government- also written by John Locke, attacks patriarchism and outlines ideas for a more civilized society based on natural rights and contract theory

Discourse on Method- written by Descartes, one of the most influential works of modern philosophy, famous for the line “I think, therefore I am.”

Don Quixote- famous novel of Miguel de Cervantes, this novel compares the idealistic values of religion with realistic values through an elaborate story of romantic satire.

Pensees- written by Blaise Pascal, written to defend the Christian religion, considered a culmination of his life’s work


Experimentation- trend of the Scientific Revolution which meant that people needed to learn more and not fall back on what they already know

Scientific Revolution- process that established the new view of the universe. Not a rapid movement such as other revolutions.

Challenges to the church- certain theories did not agree with biblical statements of the heavens. 

Witch hunts- 80% of victims were women, burned people who survived while family members died or people who healed with herbs

Baroque art- subjects were painted in a naturalistic manner, 

Ptolemaic system- the geocentric model of the universe, shows all celestial bodies revolving around the Earth

Copernicus- adopted many elements of the Ptolemaic system except for the fact that he made a heliocentric model

Heliocentric- Sun centered universe

Geocentric- Earth centered universe

Brahe- Danish astronomer advocate of geocentric model, spent much time watching the planets movement

Kepler- Assistant of Brahe, advocate of heliocentric, found elliptical movement of planets

Galileo- telescope, house arrested by church, found moons orbiting Jupiter, found mountains on moon, spots on sun

Scholasticism- system of theology and philosophy; narrow minded insistence on traditional doctrine

Mechanism: sought to explain the world in terms of mechanical metaphors, or the language of machinery. 

Deductive Reasoning: reasoning from general principle to arrive at specific facts

Inductive Reasoning: scientists draw generalizations derived from and test hypotheses against empirical observations

Empiricism: the use of experiment & observation derived from sensory evidence to construct scientific theory or philosophy of knowledge. 

Rationalism: opinions & actions should be based on reason and knowledge rather than on religious belief or emotional response

Novum Organum- challenged scholastism, written by Bacon 

New Atlantis- novel, also written by Bacon about a utopia, 

Descartes-  French rationalist; invented analytic geometry

Discourse on Method- Rene Descartes wrote; rejected ideas of scholasticism & encouraged more of a mathematical education

Hobbes-  provide philosophical justification for a strong central political authority

Leviathan-  Thomas Hobbes wrote providing evidence & justification for his absolutist ideas

Locke-  Absolutist writings received criticism similarly to Hobbes. writing later became foundation to liberal political philosophy in Europe & America

Two Treatises of Government- written by Locke in 1690

Margaret Cavendish- Most influential women during Scientific Revolution

Pascal-  he invented Pascal's triangle he was a  French mathematician and studied physics 

Newton- laws of motion and gravitation

Principia Mathematica- written by Newton,  stated theory of universal gravitation which explained orderly movements of the planets

Milton-  Englishman; wrote letters concerning the right to print pamphlets


Disparity between the rich and poor: Old regime had the top of the feudal pyramid like nobles and aristocrats exempt from taxes while peasants had little land and payed many taxes while working hard.

Agricultural revolution: led to increased crop production and it started in the Netherlands

Industrial revolution:  the industrial revolution was the movement to factories which led to the steam engine

Urban riot: artisan class rioted to keep the merchants from having to much control

Ancient regime: Other name for the Old Regime which was the Feudal Society with absolutism

Family economy: production was focused on the average household.... farming for example

Nuclear families: parents and children; 2 generations

Neolocalism: living away from family memebers

Wet nurses: nurses that breastfed other children

Infanticide: killing of an infant due to famine or prostitution

Banalities: charges of using a mill or oven

Corvee: labor for peasants

Domestic system: 

Cottage industry: women staying home and knitting or many other activities that helped the activities

Hobereaux: French Nobles who were not at Versailles

Enclosures: Increased food but made peasants poorer

Taille: Tax that the nobles did not have to pay in France

Bourgeoisie: middle class in urban areas

Kay- ?

Hargreaves: credited with the creation of spinning jenny 

Arkwright: water frame, power production

Cartwright- power loom which eliminated the hand weaving in Europe

Watt- made the steam engine better 

Newcomen- credited with the creation of steam engine

Cort- puddling process that made the everything more efficient 

Hogarth- anti-gin artist from England\






Austria v. Prussia- 1740, Frederick II of Prussia an Austrian city. England and France supported opposing sides

 Great Britain v. France- They supported opposing sides of Austria and Prussia. As they were fighting they carried their anger towards each other to Norht America causing the Sevens Years War.




Diplomatic revolution- France and England switched sides. France allied with Austria and on the other hand England now supported Prussia

Seven Years War-

 American Revolution- Tensions rose between colonists and England because of taxes and suppression. This led to the Colonists revolting and creating their new country the United States of America.




Stages of empire-building-

 Mercantilism- the idea of a finite amount of wealth and that countries are supposed to gain as much of it as they can

 Factories- industrial building to manufacture goods

 Peninsulares- people that were born in Spain

 Spanish Bourbon Reforms-  

 Triangle trade-3 regions trading with each other across the Atlantic Ocean

 Stamp Act- tax on all paper in the colonies

 Boston Tea Party- colonies throw taxed tea into Boston Harbor




Philip V- King of Spain

 Charles III- Philip V successor

 William Pitt- British politic

 James Wolfe- British General

 Louis XV- Frech King from the Bourbon house


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