Renaissance- "rebirth" in French. It is the revival of learning and ideas. Plus secular beliefs and science are seen from Italy.
Rise of nation-states- Small states and other areas that all belong one leader unify to create one single nation.
New Monarchy- 15th century, monarchs build centralized governments through the military which led to economic growth.
Rise of Towns- In Italy, merchants began to develop skills like organization which led to the growth of the middle class. This in turn led to the rise of towns.
Impact of Printing Press- Everybody knew what was happening and where due to the literature that could be spread easily.
Popolo Grosso- The growth of the middle class led people like bankers to become rich fast.
Popolo minuto- This was the name for lower class Italians.
Medici- A rich family that took rule in the late middle ages over Florence, Italy.
Condottieri- mercenary army
Milan- ruled by despotism, city in northern Italy, Duchy of Milan is between Republic of Genoa and Republic of Venice.
Venice- city in Northern Italy, borders Greece, rich in trade, merchants rule
Naples- southern Italy, despotism
Lorenzo the Magnificent (aka Lorenzo de’ Medici)- Ruler of Florence in 15 century, his government had total authority over the society it ruled.
Borgia- family related to Pope Alexander IV
Pope Alexander VI- Pope that was married already, gave power to his friends and family and made horrible foreign deals he also was considered the worst pope of a ll time.
Pope Julius I- Kept french out of Italy
Platonism- following the philosophy of Platonism which say that all things are copies of ideas
Humanism- scholarly study of the Latin and Greek classics and Ancient Church Fathers, to revive ancient norms and values.
Civic Humanism- study embracing grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, politics, and moral philosophy.
Religous Humanism- humanism that includes the belief in God
School of Europe- States in Italy named in the 15th century for their output of ideas.
Petrach- ''father of humanism''
Dante- author of humanism
Boccaccio- made an encyclopedia of greek and roman mythology
Lorenzo Valla- author many ideas of the renaissance but he was criticized for his anti-papal views
Machiavelli- student of Ancient Rome, know for his ruthless government that he wrote about in his book The Prince.
Erasmus- well know humanist who put humanist ideas and put them into religion.
Giotto- father of Renaissance painting from Florence, Italy
Donatello- early renaissance sculptor
Leonardo Da Vinci- painter of the Mona Lisa, best painter of all time
Raphael- Painted School of Athens in which you can see many philosophers
Michelangelo- painted frescoes in Sistine Chapel
Benvenuto Cellini- famous sculptor, statue of Perseus
Titian- Italian painter, part of Venetian School
Mannerism- period of European art that showed up 1520.Known for intellectual sophistication.
El Greco- Painter and sculptor of Spanish renaissance.
Estates General- was a legislative assembly of the different classes of French subjects.
Taille- direct tax on French peasants and non-nobles
Jacquerie- revolt in northern France by peasants.
Louis XI- rebuild of France after the Hundred Years War, devious and disobedient
Richard III- unpopular king of England who ruled after King Edwards son
Golden Bull- 1356, issued by Charles IV, defined the structured constitution in the Holy Roman Empire.
Charles IV- German was Roman King
Maximilian I- banned private warfare
Aztecs- Rulers of Central Mexico, demanded heavy in goods and labor from their subjects
Incas- In Peru, second largest Native American civilization
Conquistadors- Spanish that took land away from the Incas and Aztecs
Encomienda- Formal grant to the labor of a specific number of Indians
Columbus- Explorer who was trying to find a fast route to the East but came across the Caribbean Islands.
Economy of exploitation- slavery
Pope John XXII- most powerful Avignon pope
Lollards- Followers of John Wycliffe who was kicked out of Oxford University for questioning the Church
Marsilius of Padua - leader of secularism
Jacob Burckhardt- he thought that if Italy learned the 14th and 15 it would increase secularism and science.
Transubstantiation- the belief that the bread and win is the body and blood of Christ
Indulgences- Money given to the church to guarantee your salvation or to get relatives out of purgatory
John Tetzel- famous indulgence speaker.
Vernacular- the regular language which was used by the people instead of Latin.
Modern Devotion- boarding school for reform-minded laity.
Thomas a Kempis- German who wrote the book called On the Imitation of Christ,
Martin Luther-a German theologian, who played most likely the largest part in the Protestant Reformation, was against indulgences and papal authority
95 Theses- about the sale of indulgences which was written by Luther
Justification by Faith Alone: Luther said to get salvation all you needed was faith and keep good deeds as your part of everyday life
Charles V: revived German Imperial Supreme Court & the Council of Regency, helped Reformation.
Edict of Worms- because of Luthers 95 theses this labeled him as a heretic and had his writing banned.
"Here I Stand!": a book by Roland H. Baiton about Luther and his life
Peasants Revolt (1525)- Peasants revolted saying Luther approved, he did not because he wanted a reformation, not a revolution
Ulrich Zwingli- began a reformation movement in Switzerland against the Catholic Church.
John Calvin- he wrote Institutes of Christian Religion. he was a French theologian. he was forced to stay in Geneva so he did and began to make guidlines for his new church
Calvinism- replaced Lutherism as the dominant Protestant force , divine predestination and reorder society to God's plan
Predestination- God had already decided whether or not you were going to heaven or hell, this belief was seen in calvinism.
Michael Servetus- executed by John Calvin's judgment
Anti-Trinitarians- radical Protestants strongest group against Calvinism.
Spiritualists- group of Protestant . believed that anybody willing to listen can here spiritual orders
Anabaptists- only believed in adult baptism did not want infant baptism.
Grebel & Swiss Bretheren- Grebel started the radical idea of Anabaptism, Swiss Bretheren was part of Grebel's followers.
Jansenists- humans with original sin could not save themselves, they would need grace from God
Peace of Augsburg- recognized the split of Christianity between Roman Chatholic and Protestant religions
Cuis Region, Eius religio- gave the ruler of the land the right to choose the official religion.
Henry VIII- married brothers wife after he died but, only to cheat on her
Act of Supremacy- mad Henry the supreme ruler of England
Edward VI- was the king during the reformation
English Reformation: protestant ideas came to England in the early 16th century.
Ignatius of Loyola- leader of counter reformation, was a soldier who followed religion strictly
Council of Trent - council overseen by the Pope which led reforms to respond to the reformation
Counter Reformation- an attempt by Roman Catholics to regain some of its followers
Education and literacy: education and literary skyrocketed at this point
Humanism’s affect on the Reformation: humanism had very similar ideas to those of the Protestants
Women in the Reformation- in journal for this chapter i explain how women are treated with more respect
Changing family life - More marriages, parents have more respect for children
Wet nurses - Nurses care for baby
Miguel de Cervantes: author of Don Quixote
Don Quixote- story about a guy trying to be a hero but is just a comedian
William Shakespeare- pretty obvious but the greatest writer of all time and he wrote many stories, sonnets, and poems.
Glorious Revolution (1688)- overthrowing of King James II, he was Catholic and had close ties to France, overthrown by eventaul King of England, William of Orange
War of Devolution- Louis XIV's French armies overrun Habsburg controlled Spanish Netherlands
War of Spanish Succession (1701-14)- war was fought between each side of Spain's allies who determined the next King of Spain
Divine right of kings- people can not judge a King, only God can judge him
Nonconformists- a person whose behavior or views do not conform to prevailing ideas or practices
Petition of Right- English constitutional document that sets out specific liberties of the subject that the king is prohibited from infringing
Short Parliament- Parilemant of England that only lasted three weeks under Charles I
Mississippi Company, Bubble- This company became the company of the West and was a large buisness monopoly to the French
Whigs- political party against absolute power
Tories- wanted srong monarchry, rival with whigs
Magyars- A nation and an ethnic group native to and primarily associated with Hungarian people
Pragmatic Sanction- by Holy Roman Emperor, to allow Hapsburg succesion by a daughter
Junkers- members of nobility in Prussia
Streltsy- russian guardsmen
Boyars- members of the highest rank in feudal aristocracies on Bulgaria
Table of Ranks- ranks of military and government position in Russia
John Law- Scottish economist who believed that money was only a means of exchange that did not constitute wealth in itself
Long Parliament- could only end when the members decided to
Grand Remonstrance- list of grievances given to King Charles II by the Long Parilament
Roundheads- In the English Civil War, the people who supported the Parliament
New Model Army- formed by the Parliament in the English Civil War
Puritan Republic; Interregnum- After the English Civil War, Puritans imposed their life style on the country
Navigation Acts- series of laws that made the British colonies stop trading with other countries
Popish plot- a fake conspiracy that scared England of the assassination of Charles II, led to 22 murders
Bill of Rights- a bill that declares the human rights that belong to the people of that nation
Toleration Act- freedom given to nonconformists
Parlements- political institution in France
Intendants- holder of a public administrative office
Raison d’etat- A state interest, especially when invoked as politically superior to moral or even legal considerations
Fronde- series of civil wars in France
L’etat, c’est moi- Louis XIV said this,,, meaning "I am the state"
Versailles- palace for the royal family in France
Jansenists- anew theological movement
Revocation of Edict of Nantes- Louis XIV did this, making Protestant life intolerable
Treaty of Aix la Chapelle- ended the war Austian succession
League of Augsburg- made to stop Louis XIV expansions
Treaty of Utrecht- series of individual peace treaties
James I: rejected the Puritans, ended much needed peace with Spain,
Experimentation-methods of experimentation battled for public support.
Ptolemaic system- explanation of the universe
Deductive Reasoning- a way to reach a logical statment derived from multiple statements
Empiricism-the use of experiment and observation
Scholasticism- 2 truths: god is true and bible is true
Rationalism- intellectual truths and not sensory evidence
Baroque art & music- style of art and music made popular by the Counter-Reformation- very dramati, trying to scare protestants back to Catholicism
Copernicus- heliocentric model of the solar system
Brahe- Danish astronomer heliocentric model vs. the geocentric model
Kepler- German mathematician, teacher, and astronomer
Galileo- best known for his improvements to the telescope and support for the heliocentric model
Newton- considered one of the most influential scientists of all time, created the laws of motion and law of universal gravitation that are still used today
Cervantes- influenced by Catholic teaching as well as Spanish power, this Spanish author’s novels focused on tests of character that threatened the honor or reputation of a hero
Shakespeare- most famous author of all time, Shakespeare was the author of many plays, his works are revered by English teachers and scholars worldwide for their intricacy, elaborate characters and plots, and beautiful storytelling, his most famous works include Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, and A
Midsummer Night’s Dream
Milton- English poet and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under Oliver Cromwell, wrote during a period of religious flux and political upheaval, best known for his epic poem Paradise Lost
Bunyon- author of The Pilgrim's Progress from This World to That Which Is to Come; Delivered under the Similitude of a Dream
Bacon- English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator and author, widely influential after his death for his advocating of scientific method
Descartes- French philosopher, mathematician, and writer, spent most of his life in the Dutch Republic, considered the “Father of Modern Philosophy”, much Western philosophy responds to his writings, which are still studied today
Pascal- child prodigy, inventor of mechanical calculator, member of Jansenists, created probability theory and projective geometry, clarified concepts of pressure and vacuum
Hobbes- author of Leviathan, created the foundation of Western philosophy that relied on social contract theory, which questioned the state’s power over the individual
Locke- British empiricist, influential towards social contract theory, influenced many, including members of the American Revolution
Dante- author of The Divine Comedy and Vita Nuova, pioneer in Italian vernacular literature, used geocentric model in The Divine Comedy
Novum Organum- philosophical work by Bacon, introduced a new system of logic that was allegedly superior to the old ways of syllogism
Principia Mathematica- written by Sir Isaac Newton, contains his laws of universal gravitation and his laws of motion
Richard III- play written by Shakespeare depicting the Machiavellian rise to power and subsequent short reign of Richard III
Pilgrim’s Progress- a Christian allegory written by John Bunyon, considered one of the most influential Christian works of all time, never been out of print, translated into more than 200 languages
Essay Concerning Human Understanding- written by John Locke, concerns the foundation of human knowledge and understanding in which Locked describes the mind at birth as a blank slate filled later through experience
Two Treatises of Government- also written by John Locke, attacks patriarchism and outlines ideas for a more civilized society based on natural rights and contract theory
Discourse on Method- written by Descartes, one of the most influential works of modern philosophy, famous for the line “I think, therefore I am.”
Don Quixote- famous novel of Miguel de Cervantes, this novel compares the idealistic values of religion with realistic values through an elaborate story of romantic satire.
Pensees- written by Blaise Pascal, written to defend the Christian religion, considered a culmination of his life’s work
CHAPTER 14- SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
Experimentation- trend of the Scientific Revolution which meant that people needed to learn more and not fall back on what they already know
Scientific Revolution- process that established the new view of the universe. Not a rapid movement such as other revolutions.
Challenges to the church- certain theories did not agree with biblical statements of the heavens.
Witch hunts- 80% of victims were women, burned people who survived while family members died or people who healed with herbs
Baroque art- subjects were painted in a naturalistic manner,
Ptolemaic system- the geocentric model of the universe, shows all celestial bodies revolving around the Earth
Copernicus- adopted many elements of the Ptolemaic system except for the fact that he made a heliocentric model
Heliocentric- Sun centered universe
Geocentric- Earth centered universe
Brahe- Danish astronomer advocate of geocentric model, spent much time watching the planets movement
Kepler- Assistant of Brahe, advocate of heliocentric, found elliptical movement of planets
Galileo- telescope, house arrested by church, found moons orbiting Jupiter, found mountains on moon, spots on sun
Scholasticism- system of theology and philosophy; narrow minded insistence on traditional doctrine
Mechanism: sought to explain the world in terms of mechanical metaphors, or the language of machinery.
Deductive Reasoning: reasoning from general principle to arrive at specific facts
Inductive Reasoning: scientists draw generalizations derived from and test hypotheses against empirical observations
Empiricism: the use of experiment & observation derived from sensory evidence to construct scientific theory or philosophy of knowledge.
Rationalism: opinions & actions should be based on reason and knowledge rather than on religious belief or emotional response
Novum Organum- challenged scholastism, written by Bacon
New Atlantis- novel, also written by Bacon about a utopia,
Descartes- French rationalist; invented analytic geometry
Discourse on Method- Rene Descartes wrote; rejected ideas of scholasticism & encouraged more of a mathematical education
Hobbes- provide philosophical justification for a strong central political authority
Leviathan- Thomas Hobbes wrote providing evidence & justification for his absolutist ideas
Locke- Absolutist writings received criticism similarly to Hobbes. writing later became foundation to liberal political philosophy in Europe & America
Two Treatises of Government- written by Locke in 1690
Margaret Cavendish- Most influential women during Scientific Revolution
Pascal- he invented Pascal's triangle he was a French mathematician and studied physics
Newton- laws of motion and gravitation
Principia Mathematica- written by Newton, stated theory of universal gravitation which explained orderly movements of the planets
Milton- Englishman; wrote letters concerning the right to print pamphlets
Disparity between the rich and poor: Old regime had the top of the feudal pyramid like nobles and aristocrats exempt from taxes while peasants had little land and payed many taxes while working hard.
Agricultural revolution: led to increased crop production and it started in the Netherlands
Industrial revolution: the industrial revolution was the movement to factories which led to the steam engine
Urban riot: artisan class rioted to keep the merchants from having to much control
Ancient regime: Other name for the Old Regime which was the Feudal Society with absolutism
Family economy: production was focused on the average household.... farming for example
Nuclear families: parents and children; 2 generations
Neolocalism: living away from family memebers
Wet nurses: nurses that breastfed other children
Infanticide: killing of an infant due to famine or prostitution
Banalities: charges of using a mill or oven
Corvee: labor for peasants
Cottage industry: women staying home and knitting or many other activities that helped the activities
Hobereaux: French Nobles who were not at Versailles
Enclosures: Increased food but made peasants poorer
Taille: Tax that the nobles did not have to pay in France
Bourgeoisie: middle class in urban areas
Hargreaves: credited with the creation of spinning jenny
Arkwright: water frame, power production
Cartwright- power loom which eliminated the hand weaving in Europe
Watt- made the steam engine better
Newcomen- credited with the creation of steam engine
Cort- puddling process that made the everything more efficient
Hogarth- anti-gin artist from England\
Diplomatic revolution- France and England switched sides. France allied with Austria and on the other hand England now supported Prussia
Seven Years War-
Stages of empire-building-
Philip V- King of Spain